Standard HPLC particles that ranged from 3.5 to 5 µm took advantage of historic HPLC systems such as the Alliance HPLC with pressure limits of ~5000 psi. Advancements in particle technology introduced smaller sizes ranging from 2.x to 1.x µm based on vendor and chemistry. These changes require ultra-high-pressure systems capable of withstanding the significant increase in backpressure caused by the smaller particles and higher flow rates.
The UHPLC and UPLC systems provide upgrades to pressure limits and include smaller inner diameter tubing that prevents excessive band broadening and loss of critical resolution gained from the smaller particle columns. Explore a set of experiments that illustrate how mismatching particle size and liquid chromatographic systems can result in poor performance, and learn about the hardware changes that allow for scaling and modernization of chromatographic methods.